At Covanta, we know that maintaining our environmental performance—and exceeding, where possible, the expectations of our stakeholders—is critical to protecting our planet, our people and the prosperity of our business. We are committed to a goal of sustaining past emissions performance gains while maintaining 100 percent compliance with all discharge limits, including stack tests and the requirements of our continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS). Our challenge is not only to meet these goals, but to meet them efficiently and consistently in the pursuit of continuous improvement.

Operations Manager Lee Miller

We manage our environmental performance through a collaborative effort of our Operations and Environmental departments. Responsible for the day-to-day functioning of our facilities, the Operations department is ultimately responsible for operating our facilities in accordance with our permits and other requirements. The Environmental department is responsible for each facility’s understanding and compliance with all permit conditions. We manage compliance through a combination of our Environmental Management Information System (EMIS), technical standards, environmental procedures and a vertically integrated team of environmental professionals located at both the facilities and corporate headquarters. EMIS allows us to track timely completion of compliance requirements and manage associated compliance data. Our environmental performance is reviewed monthly with senior management.

Air emissions from EfW facilities are heavily regulated by both the U.S. EPA and state environmental agencies. Emissions from EfW facilities are determined both through routine stack tests (performed at least once a year) and through continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS). CEMS monitor flue gases continuously for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), opacity, and carbon dioxide and/or oxygen. Facility operators monitor these parameters and adjust as needed to ensure proper operation and compliance. For example, monitoring CO levels continuously allows operators to respond to changes in the waste (e.g. wetter than normal waste that may have been collected during a rainstorm) to ensure complete and efficient combustion.

Other regulated pollutants are checked through a rigorous stack testing program performed by a regulator-approved third-party. The operating parameters under which the stack test is conducted (e.g. activated carbon addition rate, steam flow rate) set the standard for the facility’s operation until the next stack test is completed. Operating the combustion process and air pollution control equipment in accordance with these standards ensures compliance. These tests are scheduled well in advance of their performance, and contrary to myth, facility operators do not remove plastics from the waste stream or alter operations in any way to improve emissions performance during the test.

EfW Continuous Emission Monitoring System Compliance Performance


Our North American EfW facilities’ performance, as measured by CEMS, averaged 99.95 percent compliance in 2017 and 2018. Our stack test compliance rate in 2017 and 2018 was 100 percent. Our Covanta Environmental Solutions wastewater operations, which pre-treat water prior to discharging to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW), achieved a 99.8 percent compliance rate with pre-treatment permit limits in 2018.

Occasionally, we are subject to proceedings and orders that pertain to environmental permitting and other regulatory requirements, potentially resulting in fines or penalties. Our total environmental-related fines and penalties at our facilities were $124,366 and $103,922 in 2017 and 2018, respectively.

Environmental Fines

Our Performance in 2017–2018

We have successfully maintained emissions reductions at our facilities overall: since the announcement of our first sustainability program in 2007, emissions are down by up to 69%. Today, we are finding ways to sustain our levels of emissions performance more efficiently, by optimizing our operations. In 2018 we saw the lowest number of emission exceedance events in company history,  and no stack test failures in 2017 or 2018.

To us, environmental excellence means that every Covanta facility meets or exceeds our strict standards for environmental performance, which we measure and track through continuous emissions monitoring systems, stack tests and discharge limits.